I have found the search term "split hoof animals list" in my search terms and thought this shouldn’t be hard. So let’s start with the land animals. Land animals need to have (completely) split hooves and need to chew the cud as. Only animals with both signs are kosher. The rules come directly from the Torah:
Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: These are the living things which ye may eat among all the beasts that are on the earth. Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is wholly cloven-footed, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that may ye eat.
(Leviticus / Vayikra 11:2-3, there’s a similar part in Deuteronomy / Devarim 14:4-8)
Which animals are those? I am not a rabbi nor a kashrut expert, I am only using Google and Wikipedia. When in doubt about some exotic animal, ask your local rabbi or kashrut organization!
Let’s start with the animals that everybody knows, i.e., those animals that are universally recognized to be kosher and that are commonly sold:
There are of course different breeds (e.g., for cows Texas Longhorns, Holstein Friesians, etc.), but they are all kosher.
And some other animals that are recognized as kosher and are listed on most lists (e.g., CRC Kosher Animal List), articles or books. The names do not identify a specific species, but rather a family of species. For example there are several kinds of antelopes all over the world. But they are all kosher:
And now for some more exotic animals that nonetheless are kosher (not an exhaustive list):
- zebu (R. Ari Z. Zivotofsky: Kashrut of Exotic Animals, The Buffalo).
- American buffalo / bison (R. Ari Z. Zivotofsky: Kashrut of Exotic Animals, The Buffalo).
- Water buffalo (Israel National News: Israel’s Water Buffalo Deemed Kosher)
- elk (Voz is Neias: New York – Elk Meat To Become Kosher)
- moose (R. Ari Z. Zivotofsky: Kashrut of Exotic Animals, The Buffalo, KosherNexus: Shibuta, the fish that tastes like pork)
- yak (KosherNexus: Shibuta, the fish that tastes like pork, Amy Spiro: Adventurous Kashrut)
- reindeer (Ohr somayach: Rudolph the red-nosed roast beef)
- caribou (GreenAsh: Kosher and the Land that G-d forgot)
- giraffe (R. Yirmiyahu Ullman: Kosher Giraffe)
- okapi (Mi yodea: Is okapi meat kosher)
- springbok (Union of Orthodox Synagogues South Africa: What is kosher)
- pronghorn (R. Ari Z. Zivotofsky: Kashrut of Exotic Animals, The Buffalo)
You can see where these animals live on this nice little map of kosher animals worldwide. Note that the animals have to be slaughtered in the proper way in order to get kosher meat. This will probably mean it is impractical to get kosher meat for many of them (e.g., the giraffe). There are also some opinions that we need a tradition to eat a given animal, this would exclude the more "exotic" ones from the list, as there is no such tradition for them.