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There are 39 forbidden melachot (types of work) on Shabat listed in Mishna Shabat 7,2. These 39 melachot can be grouped into categories, and one of these categories is the "order of bread". Its 11 melachot describe the process of making bread out of grain. Here they are:

  • For grain to be able to grow, the ground needs to be prepeared by plowing (choresh, חוֹרֵשׁ).
  • Next step is to plant (zorea, זּוֹרֵעַ) the seeds and water them.
  • Once the grain is ripe, it is ready for reaping (kotzer, קּוֹצֵר).
  • The single eares are gathered (me’amer, מְּעַמֵּר) in sheaves.
  • To separate the edible grain from the chaff, the grain is threshed (dosh, דָּשׁ)
  • and winnowed (zoreh, זּוֹרֶה).
  • Mixed with the grain could be dirt, stones or other undesirable parts, to remove them, the result is sorted (borer, בּוֹרֵר).
  • By grinding (tochen, טּוֹחֵן) flour is produced.
  • Because the flour might still contain undesired things, it is sifted (meraked, מְּרַקֵּד).
  • From the flour a dough is made by kneading (losh, לָּשׁ).
  • Finally, the dough is baked (ofeh, אוֹפֶה) to get bread – or cooked (bishul, בִשוּל) to get other foods.

A longer explanation what each melacha entails can be found in the excellent Laws of Shabbat course by Pathways.

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