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I always get the timeline confused, so here it is for me to remember:

15th of Nissan (Passover) – Exodus from Egypt
— 50 days —
6th of Sivvan (Shavuot) – G-d gives Ten Commandments to the Jewish people
7th of Sivvan – Moshe goes up the mountain to learn more
— 40 days —
17th of Tammuz (fast day) – Moshe comes down from the mountain, finds golden calf, destroys first set of tablets
18th/19th of Tammuz – Moshe goes up the mountain again to plead for the people
— 40 days —
29th/30th of Av – Moshe comes down, G-d has forgiven
1st of Elul (Rosh Chodesh Elul) – Moshe goes up a third time
— 40 days —
10th of Tishri (Yom Kippur) – Moshe comes down with the second set of tablets – finally!

Rabbi Shraga Simmons: ABC’s of Elul (Aish)
Rabbi G. Rubin: Matan Torah According to Rashi (Ohr Somayach)